SCOTT'S NOTES: The Sufis, including the ones in this yahoo group, have a long history of peace and political detachment. They have been called the mystical core of Islam. Considering the status of Sufism as a minor world religion, it has been studied by a disproportionate number of scholars from institutions such as Oxford and the University of London. It is interesting to note that the Sufis themselves have been the targets of terrorist's suicide bombers as recently as last October in Ajmer India, mainly because of their great tolerance for other religions. This email is an attempt to influence the Sufis to join some terrorist group's "Jihad". Notice the display of intelligence and articulation through the author's apparent but doubtful command of history as he slowly, subtly and methodically builds up to his evil exhortation to Sufis that they should kill Americans. This email was rejected by the other members of this group. END SCOTT'S NOTES

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Sufi Mujahideen the Forgotten Heros

More often than not, the term "Sufi" invokes images of twirling
Dervishes lost in ecstasy, strange people who engage in exotic practices
that seem antithetical to Islamic legal traditions, or apolitical
mystics fixated in meditation. In addition to the misconception that
Sufism is inherently heterodox, perhaps the greatest misconception is
that it is passive and apathetic towards Jihad. In reality, nothing
could be further from the truth.

First and foremost, it is necessary to establish the orthodoxy of Sufism
by pointing out the sheer number of eminent scholars who have been Sufi.
Amongst the Hanafi Ulema, we have `Ali Qari (d. 1606), `Abd al-Ghaffar
Nabulsi (1641-1733), Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi (1564-1624), and Shah
Waliullah (1702-1763). From the Malikis, the following Ulema were Sufi:
Ibn `Ata' Illah al-Iskandari (d. 1309)3 and Ibn `Ajiba (1747-1809). The
Hanbalis had `Abd al-Rahman ibn Jawzi (1114-1201); `Abd al-Karim Jili
(1365-1428) who was the great-grandson of `Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani , and
Ibn Rajab. Mohiyuddin Ibn Arabi was of the Dhahiri madhab. The Shafi'i
madhab too,had a plethora of Sufis as some of its most prestigious
scholars: Abul Qasim al-Junayd (d.910), Hakim Tirmidhi (d. 320)9, Abu
`Ali Daqqaq (d. AH 405), Abu `Abd al-Rahman Sulami (936 – 1021) ,
Imam Ghazzali (1058 -1111), `Abd al-Wahhab Sha'rani (1493- 1565), Abul
Qasim Qushayri (986 – 1072), Imam `Izz ibn `Abd al-Salam (1181-1262)
( In addition to his outstanding works in Islamic law, he is also known
for his harshness with Muslim rulers who did not fight against the
Crusaders vigorously), Imam Nawawi (1233 – 1277), and Imam Suyuti
(1445 – 1505). It should also be noted that even Muhammad Haya
al-Sindi, the hadith teacher of Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab who
introduced him to the works of Ibn Taymeeyah*(There is much debate over
whether or not Ibn Taymeeyah was a Sufi of the Qadiri order), was from
the Naqshbandi tariqa. Interestingly enough, the great Indian scholar
and Sufi, Shah Waliullah Dilhavi, was a student of another great Sufi
scholar, Ibrahim al-Kurrani, who happened to also be the teacher of
Muhammad Haya al-Sindi and Shaykh Yusuf who later lead a jihad against
the Dutch in Indonesia. Aside from the select few of Sufi scholars that
were briefly mentioned above, there are countless others who have not
been mentioned. Although it does not give the subject justice, it should
be clear that the roots of Sufism have always had its roots firmly
entrenched in orthodoxy.

The second greatest misconception that people, including non-Muslims,
have of Sufism is that it is flaccid in participating in issues
pertaining to social justice and engaging in Jihad. History is a
testament that not only is Sufism not opposed to Jihad, but rather,
Sufis have been amongst the foremost leaders of Jihad. Even the early
Sufis were known for their fervent desire for engaging Jihad and seeking
martyrdom. For example, Ibrahim ibn Adham (d. 778), was an early Sufi
ascetic who was born into a life luxury which he abandoned in order to
study the Sacred Sciences and later fought in jihad against the
Byzantines. In fact, the very roots of the Sufi zawiya, a type of lodge,
has its roots in the ribat. The ribat is a type of fortress that was
often built along the ever expanding Islamic frontier. At these
fortresses, Sufi shuyookh adapted their teachings of outward jihad in
order to teach their disciples the science of inner jihad.

During the Crusades, Sufis also participated in popular resistance
against the Franks. The Battle of Mansura in Egypt included participants
of the likes of Sheikh Abu Hassan ash-Shadhili, Sheikh Ibrahim Dessouki,
and Sheikh al-Qannawwi. When Sultan Al Kamel of Egypt began negotiating
with the Franks during the Fourth Crusade, Mohiyuddin Ibn Arabi scolded
him by saying "You have no pride and Islam will not recognize the likes
of you. Stand up and fight or we shall fight you as we fight them."

Even Imam Ghazzali castigated the Mameluke Sultans for failing to carry
on the fight by giving them a similarly pernicious warning: "Either take
up your sword for the sake of Allah and the rescue of your brothers in
Islam, or step down from the leadership of Muslims so their rights can
be championed by other than you." Egyptian resistance during the Seventh
Crusade
was lead by Sheikh Ahmad al-Badawi of the Rifa'i tariqa. Shaykh
Najm al-Din Kubra, the founder of the Kubrawiya tariqa, died in the
defense of Khwarazm from the Mongol hordes. Even from within the Ottoman
Empire, Sufis mobilized the masses in jihad, often lead rebellions
against the rulers, assisted in the accession of the Sultan, and some
even served as chaplains to the warrior class known as the Janissaries.

During the era of colonialism, Sufis lead resistance movements across
the Ummah against imperialism and its purveyors. In the Caucasus, the
Russians faced stiff resistance coming primarily from the Naqshbandi and
Qadiri tariqas. Mulla Muhammad al-Ghazi al-Kamrawi fought against the
Russians when Russia declared itself the protector for the Christians in
Khurjistan and annexed portions of Safavid Persia in 1800. Mulla
Muhammad was the Sheikh of the Naqshbandi tariqa and hundreds of
thousands of his murids fought against the Russians until he died.
Leadership was then transferred to Al-Amir Hamza al-Khanzaji but within
a year, he was martyred as well. The famous Imam Shamil al-Dagestani
then became the Amir of the jihad and fought the Russians for
twenty-seven consecutive years. Interestingly enough, Imam Shamil met
Sheikh Abd al- Qadir al-Jaza'iri, another Sufi who was fighting over
3,000 miles away, in 1828 while on Hajj where they exchanged information
about guerilla warfare. After his surrender, rebellions were carried on
by the murids of the Qadiri order. In 1864, the Russians killed over
4,000 Qadiri murids alone along with many other innocent civilians. The
Naqshbandis and Qadiris joined forces and rebelled in 1865, 1877, 1878
and all throughout the 1890s. During the Soviet Revolution, the Muslims
were lead by ShaykhUzun Haji. Stalin ultimately dealt with the "Chechen
problem" by forcibly relocating the entire population into concentration
camps.

In the Indian subcontinent, Sufis and Sufi orders played a considerable
role in active military and intellectual resistance against the British.
The Sufis participated in resistance prior to the famous Mutiny of 1857
when the followers of Shah Waliullah, under the leadership of his son
Shah `Abd al'Aziz (1746-1824) began initiating Jihad. In a fatwa Shah
`Abd al'Aziz proclaimed India to be Dar al-Harb. He declared jihad,
stating "Our country has been enslaved. To struggle for independence and
put an end to the slavery is our duty." He was succeeded in his
struggles by Sayyid Ahmad Barelwi (1786-1831) who founded the Tariqa-i
Muhammadi and was eventually defeated by the Sikhs of Punjab. Both Sufi
and non-Sufi scholars alike participated actively in the Mutiny of 1857.
When the rebellion was finally extinguished, over 50,000 Ulema were
dead. Even in Indonesia, the Qadiri order provided leadership in the
already widespread resistance to Dutch imperialism in the 1840s and
1850s.

By far, one of the most act areas of Sufi resistance occurred in Africa.
Resistance by Sufis against imperialism began almost as soon as
Europeans endeavored at colonizing the Muslim lands. In Morocco, the
Shadhili tariqa was the forefront opponent of the Portuguese in the 15th
century, the most notable of the Sufis being al-Jazuli. Shaykh `Uthman
Dan Fodio (1754 – 1817) was a Maliki scholar of the Qadiri order who
vigorously spoke out against the innovations that had become dominant in
his time, particularly the mixing of Islamic and pagan beliefs. He
eventually performed hegira, established an Islamic state, and engaged
in jihad to unite the region under the Shariah. Al-Hajj `Umar Tal was a
Tijani sheikh from northern Senegal who fought jihad against both the
French and pagans of Guinea, Senegal, and Mali. After performing his
second pilgrimage, he traveled across various cities in Africa starting
in Cairo and eventually coming to Sokoto, Nigeria, where he studied with
Muhammad Bello, the son of Shaykh `Uthman Dan Fodio, in the field of
military sciences and administration. Upon his return to his homeland,
he fought mainly against the pagans of Karta and Segu. `Umar was a
staunch advocate of the Shariah and after one victory against the
polytheists, he destroyed the idols of the pagans with his own hands
using an iron mace. Al-Hajj Muhammad al-Ahrash from Morocco, a Darqawi
Sufi, organized a group comprised of Tunisians and Moroccans in 1799 to
fight against the French during their invasion of Egypt. Sayyid Muhammad
`Abdullah al-Somali (1864-1920) was a Shafi'i scholar and member of the
Salihiyya tariqa, which he utilized effectively as a military force for
over twenty years against the British and Italians in Somalia. He once
said in a speech "Unbelieving men of religion have assaulted our country
from their remote homelands. They wish to corrupt our religion, to force
us to accept Christianity, supported by the armed force of their
governments, their weapons, their numbers. You have you're your faith in
God, your arms and your determination. Do not be frightened by their
soldiers or armies: God ismightier than they . . ." Perhaps one of the
most famous Sufi mujahideen was `Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iri (1807-1883),
was elected an Amir at the age of twenty-five and personally lead the
mujahideen against the French invasion of Algeria in 1830. He was part
of the Qadiri order and authored "al Mawaqif" [Standpoints] , which is a
three volume Sufi manual. Ma' al-`Aynayn al-Qalqami (1831-1910) of
Mauritania was also a Qadiri Sufi who made a personal alliance with the
Sharifian dynasty of Morocco to engage in jihad against the French which
resulted in the death of several of his sons. In Libya, members of the
Sanusi tariqa lead a coalition against the French and Italians.

In the Middle East, with the Ottoman Empire in disarray, several
prominent Sufi scholars carried the banner of Jihad against European
occupation. `Ali al-Daqar (1877 –1943) was a Shafi'i scholar and
sheikh of the Tijani Tariqa who founded al-Jami'iyya al-Ghurra', an
academy of more than eleven separate schools of the sacred sciences.
Along with Badr al-Din al-Hasani, he traveled the Syrian countryside
during the French occupation and instructed the people of the villages
of the obligatory nature of jihad against the imperialists. Hashim
al-Khatib (1890 – 1958) was a Shafi'i scholar of the Qadiri tariqa
also urged the Muslims to wage jihad against the French. Muhammad Sa'id
Burhani was a Hanafi scholar and Sufi of the Naqshbandi order who fought
against the French during their occupation of Syria that began in 1920.

Sufi resistance has not withered away and is still active in many parts
of the Ummah. For example, during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan,
Sufi tariqas played a pivotal role in evicting the Communists. Many
prominent leaders of the resistance were Sufis such as Sayyid Ahmad
Gailani, the head of the Qadiri order. He once held the position of
Chief of Justice amongst the mujahideen. Two previous presidents of
Afghanistan, Sebghatullah Mojaddedi and Burhanuddin Rabbani, are of the
Naqshbandi order. Even today, in Iraq two resistance groups were
recently formed in April 2005 known as the "Jihad Sufi Squadrons of
Shaykh `Abd al-Qadir al-Gilani"and 'Army of the Men of the Naqshabandi
Order" in order to fight just against the American occupation unlike
Other Wahhabi/Salafi Jihadi Groups who are also into Killing people on
Sectrain lines and carrying out Suicide Bombings in Markets and Killing
Civillans . It should be self evident by now that Sufis are not passive,
a political mystics but have often formed the core intellectual and
military elite in propagating Islamic revivals all across the Ummah. The
article should not be misconstrued as being a comprehensive study of the
role that Sufis have played in daw'ah, the revival of the sacred
sciences, and jihad, but rather, it is intended to be merely a brief
introduction to a voluminous study. May Allah (swt) raise up a leader
from amongst us who will fight the fitnah of our day and unite our
Ummah. Ameen.

[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



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